Before you begin a story about the origin of autoimmune diseases, let's understand what the immune system. Probably everyone knows that the word doctors call our ability to defend itself against diseases. But how valid this protection?
In the bone marrow of human produced by special cells - lymphocytes. Immediately after entering the bloodstream they are immature buy prednisone 10mg. A lymphocyte maturation occurs in two places - the lymph nodes and thymus. Thymus (thymus), located in the upper part of the chest, behind the sternum (upper mediastinum), and lymph nodes have in several parts of the body: neck, in the armpits, in the groin.
Those cells that underwent maturation within the thymus, the corresponding name - T lymphocytes. And those that mature in the lymph nodes, called B-lymphocytes, from the Latin word «bursa» (bag). Both types of cells needed to develop antibodies - a weapon against infections and foreign tissues. The antibody reacts strongly to its corresponding antigen. That is why, a refresher measles, the child will not get immunity to mumps, and vice versa.
Vaccination meaning is precisely to "introduce" our immunity to disease by introducing a tiny dose of the pathogen, so that later, when a massive attack, antibodies destroy antigens flow. But why, then, from year to year perebolevaya cold, we do not acquire immunity to her persistent, you ask. Because the infection is constantly mutating. And this is not the only danger to our health - sometimes the lymphocytes start to behave like an infection, and attack your own body. On why this is so, and whether you can handle it, be discussed today.
What are autoimmune diseases?
As you might guess from the name, an autoimmune disease - a disease provoked by our same immunity. For some reason, the white blood cells begin to assume an alien and dangerous a particular type of cells in our body. That is why autoimmune diseases are complex or systemic. Amazed once a body or group of bodies. The human body starts, so to speak, a program of self-destruction. Why is this happening, and whether you can protect yourself from this trouble?
The causes of autoimmune diseases
Among lymphocytes there is a special "cast" cell-techs: they set up their own protein tissue of the body, and, if some of our cells mutate dangerously, ill or will die, nurses will have to destroy the unwanted trash. At first glance, a very useful feature, especially when you consider that specific cells are under strict control of the body. But alas, the situation sometimes develops like a scripted action-thriller: everything that can spiral out of control, out from under him and take up arms.
Causes of uncontrolled reproduction and aggression-techs lymphocytes can be divided into two types: internal and external.
I type I mutations when cells cease to identify a particular cell type, organism. Having inherited a genetic baggage from their ancestors, people are likely to get sick with the same autoimmune, who hurt his closest relatives. And as regards the mutation of cells of a particular organ or organ system, it will, for example, toxic goiter or thyroiditis;
Gene mutation type II, when cells multiply uncontrollably, nurses and cause systemic autoimmune disease such as lupus or multiple sclerosis. These diseases almost always have.
Very heavy, lingering infectious diseases, after which the immune cells start to behave inappropriately;
Harmful physical effects from the environment, such as radiation or solar radiation;
"The trick," the causative cell disease, who pretend to be very similar to our own, only to diseased cells. Lymphocytes-medics can not figure out who is who, and take up arms against both.
Symptoms of an autoimmune disease
Since autoimmune diseases are very diverse, identify common symptoms for them is extremely difficult. But this type of disease develops gradually and pursue human life. Very often, doctors are at a loss and can not diagnose, because the symptoms look worn or are common to many other, much more famous and widespread diseases. But the timely diagnosis depends on the success of treatment, or even save the patient's life, autoimmune diseases can be very dangerous.
Consider some of these symptoms:
Rheumatoid arthritis affects the joints, especially small - on his hands. It is manifested not only pain, but also swelling, numbness, fever, feeling of constriction in the chest, and general muscle weakness;
Multiple sclerosis - a disease of the nerve cells, as a result of which a person begins to experience strange tactile sensations, sensitivity to lose, worse to see. Sclerosis is accompanied by muscle spasms and numbness, as well as memory impairment;
Diabetes of the first type makes a person a lifetime dependent on insulin. A first of its symptoms - frequent urination, constant thirst and a ravenous appetite;
Vasculitis - risk of an autoimmune disease affecting the blood system. The vessels become brittle, organs and tissues as if broken and bleeding inside. Forecast, alas, a poor and pronounced symptoms, so the diagnosis is rarely causes difficulties;
Systemic lupus erythematosus is called a system because it is harmful to almost all organs. The patient feels pain in the heart, can not breathe normally, constantly tired. On the skin there are red round convex irregular-shaped spots that itch and are covered with scabs;
Pemphigus - horrible autoimmune disease, symptoms of which - huge bubbles on the skin filled with lymph;
Hashimoto's thyroiditis - autoimmune thyroid disease. Its symptoms are: drowsiness, roughness of the skin, severe weight gain, cold, fear;
Hemolytic anemia - is an autoimmune disease in which white blood cells take up arms against the Reds. Lack of red blood cells results in fatigue, lethargy, drowsiness, fainting;
Graves' disease Hashimoto's thyroiditis stands antipode. When her thyroid gland starts to produce too much of the hormone thyroxine, so opposite symptoms: weight loss, heat intolerance, increased nervous irritability;
Myasthenia gravis affects muscle tissue. As a result, a person is constantly tormented by weakness. Especially quickly tired eye muscles. With symptoms of myasthenia gravis can be controlled with the help of special medicines that improve muscle tone;
Scleroderma - a disease of the connective tissue, such as a tissue in the body have almost everywhere called systemic disease like lupus. The symptoms are very diverse: occur degenerative changes of the joints, skin, blood vessels and internal organs.